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Table 1 Mental health outcomes among individuals affected by the GEJE (excluding Fukushima)

From: Mental health and psychological impacts from the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster: a systematic literature review

Citation (reference no.) Sample type (location) N Data collectiona Findings (subject proportions, measurements) Risk factors of outcome(s)
Yokoyama et al. [13] Residents (Iwate) 10,025 6 and 11 months 42.6 %, K6 ≥ 5 Severe financial problems, displacement, lack of network
Niitsu et al. [12] Residents (Iwate) 902 11 months 48 %, K6 ≥ 5 Female, middle-to-low educational status, unemployment
Koyama et al. [10] Residents (Miyagi) 281 11 and 12 months 35.9 %, K6 ≥ 13 No social support, lower annual income, cohabitating with ≥6 people
Nagata et al. [11] Residents of temporary housings (Iwate) 200 10–12 and 19–21 months No significance in K6 ≥5 between two time points (37.5 %, 10–12 months vs. 43.5 %, 19–21 months). Sense of isolation higher at 19–21 months  
Sugimoto et al. [14] National sample 8777 12 months No significance in K6 ≥13 between certified vs. non-certified groups for house damage (8.4 vs. 9 %) Lack of support from family, friends and neighbors
Fujihara et al. [15] Diabetic patients (Ibaraki) 320 3 months pre- and post-disaster Worsening of glycemic control was associated with total GHQ scores, interruption of drug regimen, somatic symptoms, and sleep disturbances/anxiety  
Inoue et al. [17] Household of tsunami-affected houses (Miyagi) 4176 7–12 months Social isolation Men <65 years and living alone, low income
Funayama et al. [16] Psychiatric outpatients (Tochigi) 294 2 months 4.1 % worsened and 1.2 % improved in GAF score GAF score >50
Saito et al. [18] Psychiatric in/outpatients (Tokyo) 155 1 week 3.5 % worsening of psychiatric symptoms (increase in epileptic seizure or GAF score)  
Aoki et al. [19] Psychiatric patients on mandatory admission (Tokyo) 224 6 months pre- and post-disaster Increased admission cases post-disaster (n = 127) compared to pre-disaster (n = 97) Schizophrenia
Kato et al. 20] Psychiatric inpatients with suicide attempt (Kanagawa) 592 6–1 months before and 1–6 months post-disaster The number of admitted patients on ventilator was higher after the earthquake (Pre, n = 87 vs. post, n = 123) Jobless, family psychiatric history, precipitating attempt, and alcohol intake
Orui et al. [23] National government statistics report (Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima)   24 months pre- and post-disaster Suicide rates in men decreased during the post-disaster period; rates in women increased in the first 7 months  
Momma et al. [22] Small and medium enterprise employees (Miyagi) 522 7 months pre- and 5 months post-disaster 14.3 % (men), IES-R ≥ 25 (5 months post-disaster)
24.4 % (women), IES-R ≥ 25 (5 months post-disaster)
Male: weak bilateral leg extension power, daily drinking habits, and depressive symptoms
Female: hypertension and depressive symptoms
Takeda et al. [24, 25] Female high school students (Miyagi) 1180 9 months 10 %, IES-R ≥25
Associated with premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder severity
Iwadare et al. [21] Junior high school student (Miyagi) 1919 8 and 20 months Shorter sleep duration and later bedtime at 20 months Bereavement experience
Usami et al. [36, 37] Children, 4–15 years (Miyagi) 11,639 8 and 20 months 42.6 %, PTSSC-15 ≥ 23 at 8 months Evacuation, house damage and/or separation from family, female, and not having breakfast
Kuwabara et al. [26] Children, 6–15 years (Miyagi) 2259 6 months Students from junior high schools with mortality rate ≥4 % had higher PTSSC-15 scores  
Numata et al. [31] PTSD outpatients (Miyagi) 43 Unspecified 2.5 g of saikokeishikankyoto powder 3 times a day for 2 weeks improved IES-R score  
Tuerk et al. [35] Residents (Ibaraki) 41 40 days post-event 27 %, self-reported PTSD symptoms Subjective health and loss of sense of community
Niitsu et al. [29] College students (USA) 30 12–14 months Japanese students (n = 17) reported higher hyper-arousal than did non-Japanese students (n = 13) Media exposure
Sekiguchi et al. [32] Non-PTSD residents (Miyagi) 42 Pre-disaster, 3–4 months post-disaster Regional volume changes in the brain observed after the disaster Smaller GMV in the ACC before the earthquake, decreased GMV in the OFC through the earthquake
Sekiguchi et al. [33] Non-PTSD residents (Miyagi) 30 Pre-disaster and 3–4 months post-disaster Post-disaster anxiety level associated with cerebral structure changes Lower FA in the right anterior cingulum, increased FA in the left anterior cingulum and uncinated fasciculus
Matsubara et al. [27] Survivors remained at damaged residences (Miyagi) 5454 1–4 months 8.1 %, depressive reaction (PHQ-2) House flooding below or above the ground floor, unavailability of gas supply, female, middle aged or elderly, regular intake of psychotropic medicine(s) since before the tsunami, no cohabitant
Nishigori et al. [30] Postpartum women (Miyagi) 677 1 month pre- and 7 months post-disaster 20 %, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale ≥9 Maternal age of under 25 years, child’s birth weight under 2.5 kg
Matsumoto et al. [28] Residents (Miyagi) 4176 7–12 months 15 %, Sleep disturbance measured by an original scale Lack of pleasure in life, lack of interaction with neighbors
Sugiura et al. [34] Food delivery users (Tokyo and Osaka) 5053 2 months pre- and 1 months post-disaster Insomnia (original scale), post- vs. pre-disaster odds ratio; Tokyo, 2.0, Osaka, 1.6  
  1. GEJE Great East Japan Earthquake, K6 Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, GHQ General Health Questionnaires, GAF global assessment of functioning, IES-R impact of event scale-revised, PTSCC-15 posttraumatic stress symptoms for children 15 items, GMV grey matter volume, ACC anterior cingulate cortex, OFC orbitofrontal cortex, FA fractional anisotropy, PHQ-2 Patient Health Questionnaire-2
  2. aCross-sectional studies unless otherwise noted