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Table 2 Mental health outcomes of Fukushima residents following the GEJE

From: Mental health and psychological impacts from the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster: a systematic literature review

Citation (reference no.) Sample type (location) n Data collectiona Findings Risk factors of outcome(s)
Matsumoto et al. [39] Psychiatric outpatient (Fukushima) 1273 1 month Bipolar I showed worst exacerbation among psychiatric diseases and manic change was prominent  
Wada et al. 2013 [45] Psychiatric inpatient (Fukushima) 28 7 days Two-thirds showed no change  
Yabe et al. [46] Residents (Fukushima) 73,433 (2011), 39495 (2012) 10 and 22 months 14.6 vs. 11.9 %, K6 ≥13,
21.6 vs. 18.3 %, PCL ≥ 44
24.4 vs. 16.6 %, SDQ ≥ 16, 4–6 years
22.0 vs. 15.8 %, SDQ ≥ 16, 6–12 years (2011 vs. 2012)
 
Tsubokura et al. [44] Residents (Fukushima) 155 1 year pre- and post-disaster 12 %, PHQ-9 ≥ 10  
Kukihara et al. [38] Evacuees (Fukushima) 241 9 months 33.2 %, IES-R ≥ 25
14.5 %, Zung Depression Scale ≥60
Resilience was predicted by employment status, eating/exercise and drinking habits
 
Sawa et al. [41, 42] Internally displaced people from Fukushima (Chiba) 73 5 and 10 months Compared to a reference group (Chiba residents), the study sample was more likely to have GHQ-12 ≥ 3, adverse social dysfunction at both time points and psychological distress at 10 months  
Sugimoto et al. [43] National sample 5809 1 year Women were more concerned than men about radiation.
Participants from Kanto region (vs. non-Tohoku/Kanto regions) were more concerned about radiation and food safety
 
Rubin et al. [40] British nationals living in Japan 284 9 mo. 16 %, GHQ-12 ≥ 4
29.7 %, State-trait anxiety inventory ≥ 18
30.4 %, State-trait anger inventory ≥ 11
 
Goto et al. [47] Parenting counseling records (Fukushima) 150 1 year pre-, 1 and 13 months post-disaster (qualitative analysis) Lowered maternal confidence and potential role of public health nurses in risk communication process post-disaster were reported  
Yoshii et al. [49] Post-partum women (Miyagi) 259 16 months (qualitative analysis) Seven themes of maternal anxiety for radioactivity from the Fukushima emerged: food safety, outdoor safety, radiation effects on embryos during pregnancy, effects on children, radiation exposures, economic issues and distrust towards disclosing information  
Ben-Ezra et al. [48] Residents (Hiroshima/Nagasaki, Tokyo and Fukushima) 750 3 years post-disaster 10.6 %, Fukushima, endorsed PTSD symptoms
2.4 %, Hiroshima/Nagasaki and Tokyo, endorsed PTSD symptoms
Relations between location, radiation stigma, and number of PTSD symptoms
 
  1. GEJE Great East Japan Earthquake, K6 Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, PCL PTSD checklist, SDQ Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire-9, IES-R impact of events-revised, GHQ-12 General Health Questionnaires 12
  2. aCross-sectional studies unless otherwise noted